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Хроника на Йоан, епископ на Никиу

Исторически Извори

(4 Гласа)
Съдържание на статията
Хроника на Йоан, епископ на Никиу
CHAPTER LXXXII
CHAPTER LXXXIII.
CHAPTER LXXXIV.
Всички страници

 Предговор към Хрониката на Йоан: Кирил Милчев

Йоан, християнски епископ в гр. Никиу в Египет, е писал своята хроника в началото на VІІІ в. на гръцки, но по-късно тя явно е преведена на арабски, откъдето още по-късно е преведена на етиопски. Запазена е на етиопски език. Хрониката започва от Адам и завършва с времето на превземането на Египет от арабите при император Ираклий (610-641). Очевидно никиуският епископ е бил монофелит, понеже обвинява халкедонското вероизповедание като причина (божествен гняв) за арабското нашествие. Той е бил от така наречените копти, християни-египтяни, които и до днес са верско малцинство в ислямският Египет. Коптите остават монофизити, въпреки разнородните процеси, които протичат в Римската империя след 451 година (Халкедонският църковен събор).


    В хрониката на Йоан Никиуски, която още през 1918 г. ползва Златарски, са дадени сведения за Кубрат, които допълват образа му от хрониката на Теофан от ІХ век. Именно епископ Йоан дава сведенията, че в младостта си Кубрат е бил кръстен в християнската вяра и отрасъл в обкръжението на Ираклий. Очевидно сведенията за Кубрат в летописа на Никифор от ІХ в., които отсъстват при Теофан, са във връзка със сведенията, които е имало за Кубрат дотогава и части от които хрониката на Йоан Никиуски също е съхранила. Ако бъдат съпоставени историческите т
 рудове на Йоан, Теофан и Никифор относно Кубрат, става ясно, че в края на VІІ в. неизвестен автор е дал в своя летопис първичните данни, които ползват през VІІІ и ІХ век тримата историци. Общият сбор от сведенията ни рисува следната картина.
       През 619 г. Орган посещава Ираклий, получава почетният сан патриций и той, заедно с цялото обкръжение на своя господарски род, приема християнството (Никифор). Кубрат присъства на тази среща и също е покръстен (Йоан Никиуски). Орган демонстрира про-византийска политика и като залог оставя Кубрат при Ираклий. Кубрат отраства в двора на Ираклий (Йоан Никиуски). Той е имал добро и признателно отношение към Мартина, втората жена на Ираклий и когато тя през 641 г. наследява мъжа си й оказва помощ (Йоан Никиуски). Връщането на Кубрат при Орган съвпад
 а с посещението, което през 626 г. Ираклий предприема на север от кавказкият проход (Теофан). През 629 г. е обявена държавата на Орган и Кубрат в Предкавказието и Приазовието. Кубрат е живял 60 години, според „Именника на българските канове”. Неговата смърт настъпва към 662/663 г. (Теофан, Никифор). И двамата историци посочват, че когато Констанс, внукът на Ираклий, отива на запад, е времето на смъртта на Кубрат. Констанс акостира в южна Италия, за да воюва с лангобардите, през 662/663 г. Кубрат, вече като владетел на Велика България, онаследява една страна, която е наречена от Теофан „древна Велика България”, а от Никифор „стара Велика България”. Нито един от двамата не пише, че Кубрат е първият създател на страна Велика България. Неизвестният автор, от който черпят Йоан, Теофан и Никифор, е живял в края на VІІ в. Той е съвременник на атаката на аспаруховите българи на юг от Дунав през 680 г. и на сключеният договор между Константин ІV Погонат и Аспарух. Неизвестният автор пише, че по това време Боян, първородният брат на Аспарух, е още жив. Теофан и Никифор, при преразказа на летописа на неизвестния автор, са преписали буквално и думите, че Боян е жив и досега плаща данък на хазарите, което важи за края на VІІ в., но не и през ІХ в. Това показва, че в началото на VІІІ в. Йоан Никиуски е познавал летописа на неизвестният автор от края на VІІ в. и включва данни от него в своята хроника. Може да се предположи, че дори в разширената версия на „Арменската география”, която версия е писана доста след VІІ в., сведенията за българите също произхождат от общият източник на Йоан, Теофан и Никифор. Описанието на географската среда на „древна Велика България” при Теофан и при разширената версия на „Арменската география”, говори за общ извор. Арменският автор на „разширената версия” също знае Кубрат и сина му Аспарух. За съжаление голяма част от хрониката на Йоан Никиуски за времето на Ираклий, е загубена, т.е. може само да предполагаме, че е дал и други сведения за Кубрат и синовете му. Политиката на Орган с Ираклий, е продължена от Кубрат, който през 635 г. също получава почетното звание „патриций” (Никифор). Мартина, след смъртта на Ираклий през 641 г., си е позволила в качеството на „майка на императори” да се среща и да приема чуждо посолство (Никифор). На Йоан Никиуски дължим сведението, че след смъртта на Ираклий Кубрат е оказвал помощ на Мартина. Той е бил един от малкото, които са я поддържали. Мартина е всъщност племенница на Ираклий (дъщеря на сестра му) и техният брак е бил незаконен в очите на клира и обществото. Сената се намесва и отнема правомощията й, в полза на сина на Ираклий от първата му съпруга. Все още никой български историк не се е постарал да проучи в какво точно се изразява подкрепата, която Кубрат оказва през 641 г. на Мартина (Йоан Никиуски).
       Хрониката на Йоан Никиуски не е преведена на български, а някои от сведенията му за Кубрат се цитират многократно, но извън контекста.

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От администратора: Уважаеми читатели, поради големия обем на Хрониката, в сайта публикуваме само част от текста. Текстът е на английски език. Моля използвайте модула за автоматичен превод, който се намира в дясната част на сайта. Изберете флага на България, за да преведете страницата на български език. Ако желаете достъп до ЦЕЛИЯ ТЕКСТ, може да го свалите в pdf формат от тук: СВАЛИ PDF.

Dear reader, because of the size of this document, we have published only a few chapters in html. Please use the Translator to translate the document in your native language (look at the right hand side on your monitor). You can also download Тhe Chronicle in PDF.

 


John, Bishop of Nikiu: Chronicle

CHAPTER LXXXII. 1. And after the death of the Godloving Jovian, Valentinian, being the foremost amongst the officers, came to mourn with them over the death of the emperor Jovian. 2. And whilst they were so mourning and were anxiously deliberating on the appointment of their emperor, then Sallust the prefect of the praetorians came (forward) and enjoying a very illustrious position amongst the officers advised them and said : 'It is most suitable for us that Valentinian should be made emperor. At an earlier date he was a general and was persecuted by Julian the apostate on account of his orthodox faith.' 3.And when the officers and the troops had heard the advice of Sallust they appointed him emperor and had him proclaimed as follows by the voice of heralds in all the |83 provinces : 'Valentinian, a just man (and) a Christian, whose words are just and whose utterance is true, has become emperor.' 4. And when he became emperor, he appointed Sallust vizier ( sic ) over all his officers ; for he was no respecter of persons. And when Sallust became vizier and was empowered with authority, he strengthened the cause of justice and right in all the provinces, and was full of discernment and refused bribes and did not give his confidence rashly. And the emperor was pleased with him because he was a doer of the right. 5. And next Valentinian made Valens his brother emperor in Constantinople, but he went himself to Home and established his authority over all the empire of the west. 6. And he condemned many magistrates who were guilty of injustice and took bribes. 7. And there was an officer of the palace named Rhodanus who had committed an act of injustice on a widow and had taken possession of her property. 8. And she went and told the emperor, and the emperor commanded (him) to restore all her property. 123 And from that day he was honoured by the army and the senate, and by all peoples, 9, For this just and equitable emperor hated oppression and judged with the voice of justice and practised equity. 10. This great emperor did not spare (even) his wife, the empress Marina. Now she had bought a garden from a nursery woman (lit. a female planter of plants) and had not paid her the price which it was equitably worth, because the valuers had valued (it) out of regard to the empress and so had inclined to do her a favour. 11. And when the pious Valentinian was apprised of what his wife had done, he sent Godfearing men to value that garden and he bound them by a solemn oath to value it justly and equitably. 12. And when the valuers came to that garden, they found that she had been guilty of a grave injustice and had given the woman but a small portion of the price. 13. And when the emperor heard, he was wroth with the empress (and) removed her from his presence and drove her from the palace and took to wife a woman named Justina, with whom he lived all the rest of his |84 days. 14. As for his first wife, he drove and exiled her from the city, and gave back the garden to the woman who had sold it.

 

15. And the emperor Valentinian raised to the imperial throne his son Gratian, who was born to him by the wife he had driven into exile. 16. And after the emperor Valentinian had accomplished many noble deeds, he fell ill and died loyal to the faith of the Holy Trinity, in the castle named Watan. 124 17. And after his death came his brother Valens, who had formerly been a Christian but afterwards had walked in the way of the Arians and had attached himself strongly to their abominable faith. 18. And he persecuted the orthodox, and their churches were openly given to the impious heretics. And he confiscated wrongfully the property of all the inhabitants of Byzantium and other cities.

 

19. And in the days of this abominable (prince) there was an earthquake in the city of Nicaea where the holy council had been held. For the sea rose against it and overwhelmed it. 20. And in those days also a man named Tatian was appointed prefect of Alexandria, which is the chief city of Egypt. And he built, in the place called Abrakjun, the two stone gates with enormous labour and he made these gates for the passage of the great river, and he fortified the country of Egypt.

 

21. And in those days there appeared a miracle through the intervention of the apostolic S. Athanasius, the father of the faith, patriarch of Alexandria. 22, When the sea rose against the city of Alexandria and, threatening an inundation, had already advanced to a place called Heptastadion, the venerable father accompanied by all the priests went forth to the borders of the sea, and holding in his hand the book of the holy Law he raised his hand to heaven and said : 'O Lord, Thou God who liest not, it is Thou that didst promise to Noah after the flood and say : "I will not again bring a flood of waters upon the earth".' 23. And after these words of the saint the sea returned to its place and the wrath of God was appeased. Thus the city was saved through the intercession of the apostolic S. Athanasius, the great star.


 

 

CHAPTER LXXXIII. 1. Now these are the illustrious emperors, the servants of God, who were zealous workers of good—Gratian and Theodosius. 2. The one set free the holy believers from bonds |85wherewith they had been bound by the emperor Valens, and put an end to the banishment of Christians. 3. As for the other he loved God ardently and restored to the faithful their churches, and destroyed idolatry. 4. And he prohibited also the teaching of the wicked Arians and established the pure and spotless faith. 5. And Gregory, the Theologian, appeared in the city of Constantinople and strengthened the churches. Previously indeed he had been obliged to find concealment in flight from house to house and from place to place. 6. And (Theodosius) built also a holy church as a noble memorial. And he drove from the city Eudoxius, the heretic, the blasphemer of the Holy Spirit. And after he had driven this miscreant from the city, he sent to Basil, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, to Gregory of Nyssa, and to Amphilochius of Iconium, wise and godly divines, and he commanded them to construct a church in the truth and in the Holy Spirit. 7. And they disputed with the heretics and got the better of them and put them to shame, and they proclaimed the true orthodox faith in every place. 8. And again as regards the history of the Godloving emperor Theodosius, while he was on his way to Byzantium to meet the blessed emperor Gratian, he saw a vision in his sleep, in which Meletius the patriarch of Antioch placed the imperial crown on his head by the advice of the leaders.

 

9. And there was an Arian living outside the city. 125 And when Amphilochius came to the imperial court, he found seated on their thrones the emperor Theodosius and his two sons Arcadius and Honorius. For he had raised them to the imperial throne in his lifetime. 10. And when the bishop came before Theodosius and his sons, he saluted Theodosius but not his sons. 11. And Theodosius was wroth because he had not saluted his sons. And when the bishop saw that the emperor was wroth with him, he said unto him: 'Reflect, O king, that in like manner there are those who do not salute the Son and the Holy Spirit who are consubstantial with the Father, namely the blaspheming heretics, (And yet) thou hast not driven these from thy empire.' 12. And when the emperor heard these words of the bishop, the emperor perceived that the bishop was one of the highest types of the faithful, and thereupon |86 he held his peace. 13. And forthwith he became zealous for the orthodox faith, and he ordained a law in his days that no heretic should be permitted to live in any of the Roman cities, nor in the cultivated enclosures nor in the fields nor in the villages.

 

14. And during the stay of the emperor Theodosius in Asia there arose a usurper, named Maximus, of British descent, who slew the blessed emperor Gratian through treachery and seized his empire by force and made his residence in Rome. 15. And Valentinian, the younger brother of Gratian, fled to Thessalonica. And as for Maximus the heretic, he despised God; for he was an Arian. 16. And next there arose a man named Eugenius, who had previously been a teacher of the heathen and had persecuted the worshippers of Christ and loved to practise magic and made (sic). And by the advice of the officers who agreed with him, he seized the empire of Valentinian and slew him by treachery. 17. And when Theodosius the emperor heard of these events, he arose and mustered a numerous army and marched against them, and put to death both Maximus and Eugenius through the might of our Lord Jesus Christ whom he served. 18. And he avenged the two emperors Gratian and Valentinian and brought back under his own hand the entire empire of Rome and established his authority over it. 19. And he gave to the orthodox believers all the churches under his dominion, and he banished the blaspheming Arians. 20. And he assembled also in Constantinople a council of bishops, to the number of one hundred and fifty holy fathers. 21. And he drove out infidelity and heresy from all the provinces of his empire and he introduced the worship of the one God in three Persons, and he strengthened the orthodox faith. 22. And the Holy Spirit was (shed) abundantly upon the priests, and their hands and their tongues and all their thoughts were pure. And peace prevailed in the churches, because the bishops had assembled in peace and unity. 23. But afterwards when Satan saw (the prosperity of the church), he was jealous and began to divide and sunder the limbs of the one complete body, that is, the holy Church. 24. For Gregory, the Theologian, having come to the council of the chief clergy of the Church, comforted and adorned the city of Constantinople by his teaching, 25. And Timothy, patriarch of Alexandria, addressed Gregory like an angel and admonished him to leave the imperial city of Constantinople and return to the city of his bishopric and its ancient church, namely |87 Nazianzum (?), 126 in order to shepherd and protect it. 26. It was unseemly for him to forsake a poor church and occupy a rich one; for this was an act of 127 ... fornication and contrary to the canons of the Fathers. 27. But when the bishops of the east and the other bishops present heard this address, they differed from him in this matter. 28. A tumult, moreover, arose amongst them on this question. For the patriarch Timothy took upon himself to nominate Maximus to the patriarchate of Constantinople; for he was an eminent man and had suffered many hardships from the Arians. 29. Now there was a feud between the Orientals and the Egyptians. And S. Gregory mediated and made peace between them. And Maximus who had been nominated to Constantinople without the consent of the bishops remained there, but Gregory they banished from the imperial city on the advice of all the bishops, and he returned to his first church. 30. But the heart of Gregory was firm as a stone and was not troubled by the troubles of this world. And all the people were grieved on his behalf; for he had saved the imperial city of Constantinople from the (spiritual) adulteries of the Arians. 31. And they banished Maximus also from Constantinople to the convent to which he had formerly been appointed, and all the bishops which had been ordained by his hands. 32. Next they appointed a man named Nectarius 128 by the advice of the one hundred and fifty bishops. Now he was a man of good birth, of the city of Constantinople. He was also wise and prudent I and he led such a good and pure life that all the world admired him for his conduct. And they forcibly appointed him to the patriarchate. 33. And he kept up a continuous warfare against the faith of the Arians, and he was zealous for the orthodox faith. And peace was established in the council and all (the bishops) later departed in joy to their cities. 34. But Satan the adversary of our race did not suffer Nectarius the patriarch to remain untroubled. For when the Godloving emperor Theodosius had set out with a numerous army to war against Maximus, the Arian usurper, and had reached a place named Milan, within which lay the Arian usurper, and had thus come face to face with him but as yet no engagement had ensued between them, certain Arians went and announced through all the city of Byzantium a lying report to |88 this effect: 'The emperor Theodosius has been defeated in battle and all his army destroyed.' 35. And by reason of this rumour fear and terror fell on all the Christians, and the orthodox out of fear inclined to the Arians. And the Arians arose in wrath and burnt the mansion of the patriarch Nectarius. 36. And after they had wrought these evil deeds, an account thereof was reported to the Godloving emperor Theodosius. And forthwith he arose and gave battle to Maximus the usurper and slew him.

 

37. And in those days the holy patriarch Timothy built a church of marvellous workmanship in the city of Alexandria and named it after the name of the emperor Theodosius. And he built also a second church and named it Arcadia after his son. 38. And there was a temple of Serapis in the city, and he converted it into a church and named it after the name of his (Theodosius's) younger son Honoring. But this church was also named after the names of the martyrs Cosmas and Damian. It faced the church of S. Peter the patriarch and last of the martyrs.

 

39. Throughout the days of the emperor Theodosius the Christians enjoyed tranquillity and peace. 40. And Theodosius constructed also many buildings in the outskirts of the city of Antioch. And he built a new wall from the mountain to the old (lit. 'first') tower 129 constructed by the emperor Tiberius. And he built walls also round the neighbouring lands and enclosures which had been without a wall.

 

41. After this there arose many heresies and divisions in the city of Thessalonica owing to the Arians. And a disturbance took place between the inhabitants and the officers and the Arians began to stone the officers, insulting thereby the emperor. When the emperor was informed of what the Arians had done, pretending that he was on his way to Rome he marched into Thessalonica with all his officers and soldiers.42. And using a ruse he sent armed men among the population of the city and destroyed the Arians. And the number of those that were put to the sword was 15,000. 130 43. And the emperor being reprimanded by the patriarch Miletius 131 for his great slaughter of the Arians—for he |89 had been troubled on behalf of the Christians—was full of wrath and indignation: but (afterwards) the emperor repented of his wrath against the patriarch, and repented and fasted and gave alms and shed many tears, praying for mercy and forgiveness of the transgression.

 

44. And in those days there were animosities and great trouble and destruction in the city of Antioch. 45. And the emperor indeed was sore pressed by the war that had been waged in (that) province and in every other quarter, and when this pressure upon him became severe, he commanded an extraordinary tax to be levied in all the provinces of his empire. 46. And they seized and illtreated the people. And when the crowds and multitudes that were in the city saw their brethren being hanged without mercy or pity, the men of the city cast down from the top of the palace the bronze + coffin + 132 which contained the body of the blessed Flacilla, the wife of the emperor Theodosius, and they dragged it through the streets of the city. 47. And when the emperor heard of this outrage, he was wroth exceedingly and removed the officers of the city and banished them to Laodicea. 48. And as regards the officials of Antioch who had perpetrated this great offence against the emperor, he gave orders, in order to punish them, that the city of Antioch should be burnt together with everything that was in it. 49. And those, who were commanded to burn the city, were Caesar an officer and Ellebichus a general. 50. And subsequently there came from the desert a monk, a saint of God, to the officers who were commanded to burn the city, and addressed them as follows: 51. 'Write to the emperor Theodosius and say to him on my part as follows: " Thou art not only an emperor but thou art also a man like us, though thou art the chief. And thou art subject to the same afflictions as every creature which bears the likeness of God. When thou condemnest the likeness of God, thou dost provoke to anger the God who created man in His likeness. For thou art angry because of a dumb statue of brass: how much more therefore will God be angry with thee and thy empire when His image endowed with utterance and a soul is in question. 52. For it is He and He alone who is Lord and King over all that has |90 given thee power. And as for thy wrath because a + coffin + 133 of bronze has been destroyed, we can make one like unto it, but thou canst not make a single hair of the head of a single person whom thou dost wish to put to death."' 53. And in those days there was a priest named John and surnamed Chrysostom 134 who taught in righteousness before he was chosen patriarch. And at that time he taught and admonished in every city. And fearing death at the hands of the Arians he had fled and left the city deprived of his lifegiving doctrine. 54. And when the emperor Theodosius heard these words he repented and calmed his anger. And the magistrates of the city, whom he had previously banished, he restored to their functions in Antioch, and those who were in prison he set free. 55. And the emperor wrote a letter in reply and sent (it) to his officers to the following effect: 'I have been angry on account of my late Godloving wife Flacilla, who has most undeservedly suffered outrage at their hands. 56. And I have been desirous to punish them. But for the sake of God and His love for mankind, (and) that He may accept me and aid me and give me victory over the heretics and barbarians and all those who rise up a.gainst me, I now accord pardon to them. Let there be peace upon the city of Antioch and let them dwell in undisturbed tranquillity.' 57. And after the emperor Theodosius had conquered the usurpers he resided in the city of Rome, and he put to death many heretics.

 

58. And in those days the bakers made underground cellars 135 and secret resorts in the earth, and built likewise structures in which they prepared dough : and they perpetrated in them many abominable deeds on people (generally) but specially on strangers and foreigners and on many who came to them to get food and drink and on others with lustful purposes. 59. And the wine sellers sent on secretly those who came to them to the bakers who |91 seized them by force. And these (captives) could not escape, and though they cried out, there was none to hear them. 60. Some of these were made to turn a mill all their days : others were placed in a brothel till they were old and even then not permitted to depart.

 

61. Now there was a soldier of the emperor whom they introduced to the mill-house by a stratagem, and tortured there for a long time. And when he was very weary (of it) he made a vigorous effort (and) drawing his sword slew many that sought to prevent his egress; those that remained were terrified and let him escape, and so he went and told the emperor. 62. And the emperor commanded the bakers to be brought and punished them severely and destroyed their secret buildings. 63. And he compelled the female prostitutes to walk publicly through Rome to the sound of a bell that their crimes might be made known to all, and the bakers also to be publicly exposed. 136 64. Thus (Theodosius) exterminated utterly all this evil.

 

65. And (Theodosius) ended his life virtuously and left an illustrious memory to his successors and went to his rest in peace. He ended his earthly life pure and blameless, and he passed from this transitory world to the life eternal.


 

 

CHAPTER LXXXIV. 1. After the death of the Godloving emperor Theodosius, his empire passed into the hands of his two sons Arcadius and Honorius who were borne to him by his wife the blessed Flacilla. 2. They had been created emperors during his (Theodosius's) lifetime: Arcadius he had appointed emperor in Constantinople and Honorius emperor in Rome. And they placed the body of the emperor Theodosius in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople.

 

3. Arcadius and Honorius were very devoted to the Christian religion. And the Godloving emperor Honorius fell ill, and when his brother Arcadius was apprised (of this) he set out for Rome to visit him. 4.Now Honorius was in purity and chastity an ascetic, and though living in the imperial palace, he observed the mode of life of a hermit. 5. And he pursued a virtuous course marked with severe discipline and many a hardship. And he wore a hair garment under silk clothing which forms the imperial dress, and he made his bed upon the ground, and fasted every day, and prayed, |92 and sang psalms, and to his religious exercises added always virtuous deeds, and despising exceedingly the earthly kingdom, he set his hopes on the kingdom of heaven, and he was prompt to do that which is pleasing to God. 6. And he completed all the good measures which had not been carried into effect by his father, and he put an end to all the evil practices which were displeasing to God. 7. Now it was the custom amongst his contemporaries that two men should fight in the arena, and that the victor should slay the other, without incurring bloodguiltiness. 8. And in those days there came to Rome a monk from the east named Telemachus, whose life had been like that of the angels of heaven. 9. And the monk finding them practise such abominable and bloody deeds, adjured them and solemnly bade them in the name of Jesus Christ to make peace and to abandon this satanical act of slaying a brother. And when they heard these words, they laid aside their weapons and stoned him with stones and shed the blood of the man of God, the devoted monk, Telemachus. 10. And when the holy emperor Honorius was apprised of this event, he put a stop to this custom in the city of Rome and abolished it. And the peace of the glorious and Most High God prevailed in the city. 11. And he destroyed also the unclean temples and made them edifices consecrated to the holy martyrs.

 

During the sojourn of the emperor Arcadius in Rome, an officer 137 of the army, named Gainas, of barbaric descent, revolted, and gathered forces and made war on the emperor. And he mustered a large host of barbarians and he caused great disquiet. 12. But the emperor Arcadius went forth hastily from Rome (and) arrived at Byzantium, full of zeal for the orthodox faith of his father, and he slew this usurper Gainas the apostate, who was of the abominable sect of the Arians. And he abode (thenceforth) in peace. 13. And afterwards the God loving emperor Arcadius fell ill and died in the days of the partriarchate of S. John Chrysostom. 14. Now his son Theodosius the younger had been proclaimed emperor before the death of his father.

 

15. And when Theodosius the younger became emperor a serious sedition took place in the city of Rome. For the emperor Honorius |93 had abandoned (the seat of) his empire and withdrawn in indignation to the city of Ravenna; for many of the senators hated the emperor Honorius the saint of God because of his good life; for he feared God and fulfilled all His commandments. 138 16. And just then a chief of the province of Gaul, named Alaric, set out with a numerous force to seize the city of Rome. 17. And when he arrived he came to terms with the enemies of the emperor and they offered him tribute from the city; but he refused to receive it and marched to the palace and seized all the imperial possessions. 18. And he carried off the sister of the emperor Honorius, named Placidia, who was a virgin. Then this conqueror returned into Gaul. 19. And he had a certain official with him, named Constantius, and he carried off the young girl to her brother the emperor Honorius without the knowledge of the conqueror. And the emperor honoured him and made him a vizier, and later raised him to the imperial throne, and gave him his virgin sister in marriage. 20. And subsequently they two, the emperor Honorius and Constantius, set out from the city of Ravenna and made themselves masters of Rome, and put to death the men who had originated the sedition against their lord, the emperor Honorius, and these were four in number. And he confiscated their possessions and broke the power of that rebel. 21. And he gave his (Roman) empire to his sister's husband Constantius, and the God-loving emperor Honorius went to Constantinople, where he made the younger Theodosius, his nephew, his colleague in the empire. 22. But after a short time he returned to the city of Rome, for he had fallen grievously ill owing to his excessive devotion to the religious and ascetic life with fasting and prayer. And his limbs swelled and he died, and he departed from this perishable world in his virginity and without a son. 23. Now Constantius the emperor of Rome had by Placidia, the sister of the emperor Honorius, a son whom he named Valentinian. 24. But there arose a usurper named John who made himself master of his empire by force. 139

 

25. And after the .death of Honorius his uncle, Theodosius the younger reigned alone in Constantinople. And when he grew up to manhood, as he was still unmarried, he was urgently pressed by his sisters, Arcadia, Marina, and Pulcheria, to marry and have children. 26. But he replied to them : 'I will only marry a girl |94 who is a virgin, comely, beautiful, Godloving, and wise.' 27. And after this reply they sought for him in every city of the empire, but there was none such among the imperial princesses nor among families of noble descent. And they traversed every region (in their search). (At last) they found a woman who had come to Constantinople, who was very beautiful and surpassed all the women of the time. 28. She was at variance with her brothers on the question of her father's property, and she had come to complain to the emperor of the injustice she had undergone.

 

And the girl's name was Athenais + that is, by interpretation +, 140 Eudocia. 29. Now her father, whose name was Heraclitus, 141 had two sons, of whom one was named Valerian and the other Genesius, and this daughter whom we have mentioned. 30. And their father on dying commanded them to give his daughter one hundred mithqals of gold as her portion. But she refused (to accept them), for she was displeased, and said : 'Do I not deserve to have an equal portion of the inheritance with my brothers?' But they refused, and drove her forth from her father's house. 31. Then her mother's sister received her and escorted her from the province of Hellas and brought her to the city of Awtamon and placed her with her father's brother. 32. Now there was there a sister of a man named Heraclitus a philosopher, who resided in the city of Byzantium. And she resorted to an artifice by means of which he conducted the girl into the presence of the emperor's sisters. 33. On learning that the girl was a virgin, they had her brought to them in the palace and informed the emperor regarding her. And he approached her and looked upon her + openly + and she pleased him. And he had her converted to Christianity and she was named Eudocia; for previously she had been a pagan of the sect of |95 the philosophers. 34. (And) he married her according to the law of the Christians and celebrated a nuptial feast in her honour and also made her empress. And when her brothers heard regarding her that she had become the wife of the emperor Theodosius and had been proclaimed empress, they were terrified and fled into the province of Hellas. 35. She sent a letter to them and had them brought from Athens to Constantinople, and she promoted them to high positions near the emperor and set Genesius over the province of Illyria, and Valerian she set over the army. 36. And later she said unto them: 'If you had not done me wrong I should not have come to the imperial city and become empress, but by the will of God I have come hither. I will not do unto you as you have done to me.' 37. Thereupon they bowed to the earth and did her homage. And subsequently she bare a daughter and named her Eudoxia after the name of the mother of Theodosius.

 

38. And in the days of this emperor Theodosius dissensions arose in the church at Constantinople because of the banishment of the blessed patriarch John Chrysostom, who had been banished in the days of Arcadius the father of Theodosius because of the empress Eudoxia's anger in regard to the vineyard of the widow.

 

39. There was likewise a great earthquake in the imperial city. And the emperor was profoundly grieved—he and all the senators and priests and people together, and for many days they walked with bare feet.

 

40. And the Isaurians seized the city of Seleucia in Syria in a marauding expedition unexpectedly, * and likewise the city of Tiberias. 142 And they pillaged all its possessions and they marched by the mountain named Amanus and returned to their country Isauria. 41. And all the people were ignorant as to the reason for which S. John Chrysostom was banished for so long a period till the death of the empress Eudoxia. 42. Now at this period there was a patriarch in the city of Constantinople, named Atticus, who had lived so wisely and after good counsels that he prevailed on the emperor Theodosius to write to the holy and wise Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, who had been appointed after Timothy, that the name of the holy John Chrysostom should be enrolled in the diptychs of the church together with all the patriarchs who had died before. 43. The holy Cyril accepted this proposal with great joy; for he |96 loved the Godloving, holy, orthodox John Chrysostom, and honoured him as a great teacher. 44. And owing to this circumstance there was great joy in the churches. And the emperor Theodosius gave large sums to the churches and rebuilt in a befitting manner those which had been destroyed.

 

45. And in those days the orthodox inhabitants of Alexandria were filled with zeal and they collected a large quantity of wood and burned the place of the heathen philosophers. 143

 

46. But the emperor Theodosius did not forget nor forsake the city of Rome, but he sent to it an officer named Aspar, with a numerous army in order to war against John the usurper. And he warred against John the rebel and overcame him, and saved Valentinian, the son of his aunt Placidia, whom she bare to Constantius. 47. And he placed him near his person, and married him to his daughter whom the empress Eudocia bare him. And (Valentinian) begat two daughters by her, and named the one Eudoxia and the other Placidia.

 

48. And (Theodosius) chose a man from among the philosophers, named Cyrus, and appointed him prefect. And he was a wise man and of severe integrity; and he was incorruptible and walked in integrity and uprightness. 49. Moreover he loved to restore the buildings (of the city). The towers 144 which had long been in a ruinous condition he rebuilt in a short time, and he was without pride and was greatly loved by all the inhabitants of Constantinople. 50. And on the occasion of a famine, 145 the emperor Theodosius saw all the people acclaiming and honouring Cyrus the prefect. (And certain people) were jealous of him and accused him to the emperor Theodosius, saying : 'It is his intention to rebel and usurp thy power.' 51. And the emperor listened to their calumnies and had the man arrested, subjected to many punishments, and deprived of all his possessions [and had him conducted into the palace]. 146 It was not on the ground of these calumnies only that he did so, but because of the acclamations of the people : 'He is a second |97 emperor like the great Constantine.' 52. And for this reason the emperor was wroth against him (and) desired to put him to death. 53. And when he heard of this purpose (of the emperor) he fled into a church, and was there appointed metropolitan of the city of Smyrna in the province of Asia, for (there) the people had previously put their bishop to death. 54. And when he was ordained metropolitan of the city of Smyrna, he made a great and long prayer to the God of heaven because He had saved him from the death threatened by calumny. 55. And whilst he was so engaged, the festival of the Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ arrived. The people and the priests placed him on the throne as was customary for the bishops, and requested him as follows: 'Speak to us regarding the greatness and the glory and the praise of the Omnipotent and regarding His holy Nativity.' 56. And he spoke first to them regarding his deliverance from death, and next he addressed them as follows: 'Know ye, my brethren, that this day is the day of the Nativity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 57. Let us honour him as is befitting, for it was of his own will alone that He was conceived in the womb of the holy Virgin Mary; for He is the primaeval Word the Creator—praise be unto Him—together with His Father (supremely) good and the Holy Lifegiving Spirit, Consubstantial Trinity for evermore.' 58. And all the inhabitants of the city honoured him and he continued discharging the ministry and the sacred services without intermission. He fulfilled his sacerdotal duty till he died in (all) honour.

 

59. And likewise in the days of the emperor Theodosius there died Atticus and Sisinnius, patriarchs of Constantinople. And after their death they brought from Antioch to Constantinople Nestorius, in order to teach there because he represented himself to be like the ascetics and those learned in the Scriptures: and they ordained him patriarch there, and he became the scourge of the Christians in every country. 60.For at once he set himself to teach and blaspheme God : and he refused to believe that the holy Virgin Mary was the mother of God, but called her the mother of Christ, saying that Christ had two natures; and so there arose many dissensions and great tumults in the city of Constantinople on this subject. 61. They obliged the emperor Theodosius to summon a council of bishops in Ephesus from all the world. And those who assembled, being in number two hundred, excommunicated and |98 deposed Nestorius and his followers. Now these subsequently returned to the holy faith together with John, patriarch of Antioch.62. They agreed with the two hundred bishops and with our holy Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, and they confirmed this faith and rejected Nestorius because he taught the same false doctrine as Apollinaris.63. And there remained but a few of those who had created the tumult and followed Nestorius, whereas the orthodox believers grew strong and multiplied exceedingly during the days of the emperor Theodosius, till Archelaus, who was set over the east, joined them and became one with us in the right faith. 64. And there remained but a few who persisted in the error of Nestorius. And so the churches enjoyed tranquillity and peace all the days of the Godloving emperor Theodosius.

 

65. These are the patriarchs who lived in Constantinople in the days of Theodosius, ie the wise patriarchs Maximian and Proclus. 66. The wise Proclus had studied diligently as a child, and when he grew up, he was fitted to remain in the city in the devout service of God, And he attended continually on the patriarch Atticus and wrote down and learnt all the teachings of God. 67. And subsequently they ordained him deacon, and when he was older they made him a priest. And Sisinnius, who was appointed patriarch after Atticus, consecrated him bishop of Cyzicum and gave it this great gift; but the inhabitants of this town refused it; for they were not worthy to receive this chosen vessel of God. 68. And so (Proclus) remained in solitude in Byzantium, while Nestorius as patriarch was disturbing the churches, by creating hatred against our Lady the holy Virgin Mary, the mother of God. 69. Now the holy Proclus composed a treatise on our Lady, the holy Virgin Mary, the mother of God, and read it in the church of Constantinople before the people assembled there, and he strongly reproved Nestorius in his treatise because his heart was set on destruction. 70. And in the beginning of his treatise it was written as follows: 'Let us celebrate the festival of the Virgin and proclaim with our tongue these words: To-day let us praise Mary the mother of God.' 147 And when all the people heard these words, they glorified our Lady and gave thanks to her, and admired exceedingly. 71. And Proclus |99 having thus touched the heart of the emperor Theodosius and of all the people, they were eager to raise him to the throne (of the patriarchate) in Constantinople after the exile and deposition of Nestorius. But certain of the chief people of the city arose and said out of envy : 'This man has been bishop of a small city: how can he be the shepherd of this great city?' 72. And for this reason they appointed Maximian 148 to the patriarchate of Constantinople. Now he was a Godfearing priest, but he was not equal to Proclus in wisdom and learning. And he occupied the throne of the patriarchate for two years and six months, leading a solitary life of devotion, and he died in peace. 73. Then the emperor Theodosius made Proclus come forward before the interment of Maximian, and commanded that he should be raised to the (patriarchal) throne of Constantinople. And accordingly Celestine, patriarch of Rome, wrote to the patriarch of Alexandria and to other bishops regarding Proclus. 74. And they sent him an answer as follows: 'The canon law of the church does not debar Proclus from occupying the patriarchal throne of Alexandria; for it is by the command of God.' 75. And so Proclus occupied (the patriarchal throne) with honour and distinction, and guided wisely the interests of his flock in the imperial city and strove against those who followed the errors of Nestorius. 76. And he wrote a letter and sent it to the illustrious + Armenius + 149 in which he combated Theodore of Mopsuestia and the heretic Nestorius and anathematized and excommunicated them in his letter. And already in the days of the blessed Maximian who went to his rest, the east had been cleansed from the pollutions of the heretic Nestorius and peace had been established in the Church.

 

77. And Proclus also brought back the body of the holy John Chrysostom to Constantinople. Five and forty years had passed since his banishment to the island named Thrace in the days of the Christ-loving emperor Theodosius the elder. 78. And he placed the body in the church of the holy Apostles where repose (also) the bodies of the holy Fathers the patriarchs who had fulfilled their course virtuously and in the orthodox faith in Constantinople. |100 79. And as for the other bishops who had been wrongfully banished with him (S. Chrysostom), whom he 150 could not bring back in the days of the blessed Atticus, the severed members were united together, and he made them one, 151 and thus discord disappeared from the churches. 152 80. And he composed a treatise worthy of the holy John Chrysostom in which he besought God to pardon the sins of the parents of the emperor Theodosius the younger—the sin they had committed against the holy John Chrysostom.

 

81. In the days of this emperor also the barbarians who had survived the defeat of John the usurper reunited and proceeded to invade the Roman territories. 82. And when the Godloving emperor was informed of this event, he meditated, as was his wont, and turned his thoughts to our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ—praise be unto Him—and he fasted and prayed.

 

83. And he was merciful to the poor and compassionate to the destitute and he devoted himself to the works which are pleasing to God with integrity and that which is beyond (all) these works. 84. He commanded Proclus and all the priests and monks to pray to God on his behalf that victory should be given to him over his adversaries and that his efforts should not be exerted in vain. 85. And God heard his prayer and the barbaric chief named Roilas died. Indeed God struck him with a thunderbolt (and) he was speedily destroyed, and many of them died by this death which was sent from God. And fire likewise came down from heaven and destroyed those that remained. 86. And all the peoples of the earth recognized by this event that the God of the Christians is great, and the righteousness and faith of the Godloving emperor Theodosius were made known.

 

87. And in those days there appeared in Alexandria a female philosopher, a pagan named Hypatia, and she was devoted at all times to magic, astrolabes and instruments of music, and she beguiled many people through (her) Satanic wiles. 88. And the governor of the city honoured her exceedingly; for she had beguiled him through her magic. And he ceased attending church as had been his custom. + But he went once under circumstances |101 of danger.+ And he not only did this, but he drew many believers to her, and he himself received the unbelievers at his house. 89. And on a certain day when they were making merry over a theatrical exhibition connected with dancers, 153 the governor of the city 154 published (an edict) regarding 155 the public exhibitions in the city of Alexandria: 156 and all the inhabitants of the city had assembled there (in the theatre). 90. Now Cyril, who had been appointed patriarch after Theophilus, was eager to gain exact intelligence regarding this edict. 91. And there was a man named Hierax, 157 a Christian possessing understanding and intelligence, who used to mock the pagans but was a devoted adherent of the illustrious Father the patriarch and was obedient to his monitions. He was also well versed in the Christian faith. 92. (Now this man attended the theatre to learn the nature of this edict.) But when the Jews saw him in the theatre they cried out and said : 'This man has not come with any good purpose, but only to provoke an uproar.' 93. And Orestes the prefect was displeased with the children of the holy church, and had Hierax seized and subjected to punishment publicly in the theatre, although he was wholly guiltless. 94. And Cyril was wroth with the governor of the city for so doing, and likewise for his putting to death an illustrious monk of the convent of Pernōdj 158 named Ammonius, and other monks (also). And when the chief magistrate 159 of the city heard this, he sent word to the Jews as follows: 'Cease your hostilities against the Christians.' 95. But they refused to hearken to what they heard; for they gloried in the support of the prefect who was with them, and so they added outrage to outrage and plotted a massacre through a treacherous device. 96. And they posted beside them at night in all the streets of the city certain men, while others cried out and said: 'The church of the apostolic |102 Athanasius is on fire: come to its succour, all ye Christians.' 97. And the Christians on hearing their cry came forth quite ignorant of the treachery of the Jews. And when the Christians came forth, the Jews arose and wickedly massacred the Christians and shed the blood of many, guiltless though they were. 98. And in the morning, when the surviving Christians heard of the wicked deed which the Jews had wrought, they betook themselves to the patriarch. And the Christians mustered all together and went and marched in wrath to the synagogues of the Jews and took possession of them, and purified them and converted them into churches. And one of them they named after the name of S. George. 99. And as for the Jewish assassins they expelled them from the city, and pillaged all their possessions and drove them forth wholly despoiled, and Orestes the prefect was unable to render them any help. 100. And thereafter a multitude of believers in God arose under the guidance of Peter the magistrate—now this Peter was a perfect believer in all respects in Jesus Christ—and they proceeded to seek for the pagan woman who had beguiled the people of the city and the prefect through her enchantments. 101. And when they learnt the place where she was, they proceeded to her and found her seated on a (lofty) chair; and having made her descend they dragged her along till they brought her to the great church, named Caesarion. Now this was in the days of the fast. 102. And they tare off her clothing and dragged her [till they brought her] through the streets of the city till she died. And they carried her to a place named Cinaron, and they burned her body with fire. 103. And all the people surrounded the patriarch Cyril and named him 'the new Theophilus'; for he had destroyed the last remains of idolatry in the city.

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